Telegraph Batteries

Excerpted from the Telephone and Telegraph Engineers' Pocketbook,
published by International Correspondence Schools, Scranton, PA.
(1908), pages 160 - 166:


     Name:          Bichromate Grenet, or Poggendorff
     Anode:         Zinc
     Electrolyte:   Sulphuric acid, 4 parts; potassium or sodium
                     bichromate, 3 parts; water, 18 parts;
                                    _or_
                     Chromic acid, 6 oz.; water, 5 1/2 pt.;
                     sulphuric acid, 1/2 pt.
     Cathode:       Carbon
     Depolarizer:   Potassium bichromate; _or_ sodium bichromate;
                     _or_ chromic acid
     EMF Volts:     1.9 to 2.1
     Remarks:       Suitable for closed-circuit work.  Electrodes
                     should be removed from solution when not in 
                     use 

                          -------------

     Name:          Fuller
     Anode:         Zinc; in porous cup containing 6 oz. of zinc
                     sulphate to 1 pint of water and a few drops 
                     of mercury
     Electrolyte:   Sulphuric acid, 17 oz.; water 56 oz.; sodium
                     bichromate, 6 oz.; placed in jar containing
                     carbon element
     Cathode:       Carbon; placed in jar containing electrolyte
     Depolarizer:   Sodium bichromate
     EMF Volts:     2.14
     Remarks:       Suitable for closed- or open-circuit work.
                     Elements need not be removed from solution 
                     when cell is not in use

                          ------------- 

     Name:          Bunsen
     Anode:         Zinc; in jar containing sulphuric acid 
                     solution  
     Electrolyte:   Sulphuric acid, 1 part; water, 20 parts;
                     specific gravity of solution should be
                     about 1.09
     Cathode:       Carbon; placed in porous cup containing 
                     depolarizer  
     Depolarizer:   Nitric acid, specific gravity about 
                     1.33 to 1.4 
     EMF Volts:     1.89
     Remarks:       Suitable for closed-circuit work.  Gives
                     off disagreeable fumes.  Elements should
                     be removed from solution when not in use.

                          -------------

     Name:          Partz
     Anode;         Zinc; hung from the lid of the cell
     Electrolyte:   Sodium chloride;  _or_  Magnesium sulphate
                     (being lighter, this solution floats on
                     top of the depolarizer
     Cathode:       Carbon; plate slightly raised from bottom 
                     of jar
     Depolarizer:   Bichromate solution; _or_ sulpho-chromic
                     salt solution
     EMF Volts:     1.9 to 2
     Remarks:       Solutions kept apart by the different 
                     specific gravities.  Resistance: with
                     sodium chloride about .5 ohm; with
                     magnesium sulphate, about 1 ohm

                          -------------

     Name:          Pabst
     Anode:         Wrought Iron
     Electrolyte:   Ferric chloride
     Cathode:       Carbon
     Depolarizer:   
     EMF Volts:     0.78
     Remarks:       Non-polarizing electrolyte

                          -------------

     Name:          Daniell
     Anode:         Zinc; in porous cup containing electrolyte
     Electrolyte:   Zinc sulphate
     Cathode:       Copper; surrounded by depolarizer
     Depolarizer:   Saturated copper sulphate solution and 
                     crystals
     EMF Volts:     1.07
     Remarks:       For closed-circuit work.  Electrolyte and
                    depolarizer kept apart by porous cup

                          -------------
     Name:          Daniell, gravity, or Crowfoot cell
     Anode:         Zinc, held in top part of jar
     Electrolyte:   Zinc sulphate; specific gravity
                     not to exceed 1.15; being lighter,
                     floats on top of copper sulphate
                     solution
     Cathode:       Copper; sheet star-shaped, placed 
                     bottom of jar surrounded by de-polarizer
     Depolarizer:   Saturated copper-sulphate solution and
                     crystals.  3 pounds of copper-sulphate
                     crystals for one cell.
     EMF Volts:     1.07 
     Remarks:       Solutions kept apart by their different
                     specific gravities.  For closed-circuit
                     work only.  Most economic output is 1/4
                     ampere.  Average resistance, about 3 ohms.

                          -------------

     Name:          Leclanche and some dry cells
     Anode:         Zinc
     Electrolyte:   Ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac) 3 oz. to
                     1 pt. water
     Cathode:       Carbon; usually placed with depolarizer in
                     porous cup; _or_ Carbon forms porous cup
                     containing depolarizer
     Depolarizer:   Dioxide of manganese, sometimes mixed with
                     broken coke 
     EMF Volts:     1.3 to 1.7
     Remarks:       Suitable only for open-circuit work.  
                     Internal resistance, from .4 to 4 ohms

                          -------------

     Name:          Edison-Lalande
     Anode:         Zinc; plate held between two cathode plates 
     Electrolyte:   Caustic potash.  15 per cent. of silicate of 
                     soda said to nearly double capacity of cell
     Cathode:       Molded plates of cupric oxide; held in copper
                     frames 
     Depolarizer:   Cupric oxide
     EMF Volts:     0.7
     Remarks:       Electrolyte must be covered with mineral oil.
                     Suitable for closed-circuit work.  Internal 
                     resistance very low

                          -------------

     Name:          Harrison
     Anode:         Zinc; must be amalgamated
     Electrolyte:   Dilute sulphuric acid, or bisulphate of 
                     potassium, or sodium; must be pure to avoid
                     local action
     Cathode:       Lead
     Depolarizer:   Peroxide of lead; compressed around a 
                     conductor of hard lead
     EMF Volts:     2.5
     Remarks:       Local action is very likely to cause trouble

                          -------------

     [Three other types of cell are listed: Latimer-Clark, 
          Carhart-Clark, and Weston.  These cells are
          characterized by EMF values from 1.4333 to 1.0187,
          and were used as voltage standards, since their
          temperature coefficients of EMF were very stable 
          or at least predictable.  Remember the Weston cell
          from freshman physics lab?]

                          -------------

     Excerpt from the general discussion of Primary Batteries,
     re Depolarizers:

          ... The chemical action incident to the generation 
          of the current consumes the zinc and, in the simplest
          cell, liberates hydrogen at the cathode, which tends
          to adhere to the surface and reduces the EMF of the
          cell.  To overcome this effect of polarization, a
          depolarizer is often used, which will dispose of the
          hydrogen as fast as it is formed......

     
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second file:
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excerpted from the Telephone and Telegraph Engineers' Pocketbook,
published by International Correspondence Schools, Scranton, PA.
(1908):

     Following a listing of 15 types of primary cells, with
     all their characteristics, we find:

     Directions for Setting up the Crowfoot Gravity Cell.
     
     Proceed as follows:  Unfold the copper strip so as to
     form a star and place it in the bottom of the jar.  The
     point where the copper connecting wire is riveted to the
     copper electrode should be near the bottom of the cell,
     and the insulated covering on the wire should come close
     to the riveted joint.  Suspend the zinc about 4 in. above 
     the copper by hooking the lug on the side of the jar.  The
     method of suspending other forms of zincs will be evident
     from their construction.  Pour sufficient clean water into
     the jar to cover the zinc and drop about 3 lb. of copper
     sulphate in a cell to be used for heavy, continuous work --
     for instance, for the local-circuit batteries that run
     telegraph sounders; for the batteries in a main-line 
     telegraph circuit, a smaller charge will be sufficient, 
     and, in quadruplex-telegraph circuits, the so-called
     "long" end of the battery will need less bluestone than
     the "short" end, because the former is not worked as
     continuously as the latter.  The internal resistance
     may be reduced and the battery made immediately available
     by drawing about 1/2 pt. of solution of sulphate of zinc
     from a battery already in use, and pouring it gently into
     the jar; or, when this cannot be done, by pouring carefully
     on top of the solution in the jar 4 or 5 oz. of pulverized
     sulphate of zinc previously dissolved in a cup of water.
     If there is no hurry for the cells, do not put in the zincs
     until the solutions have had time to settle to their normal
     conditions, which will require at least 24 hr.  This 
     prevents or reduces the formation of a black deposit on the
     zinc.  When there is much of this black deposit, remove the
     zinc and brush or scrape it off.  If no zinc sulphate is
     added in setting up the cell, it will be necessary to short-
     circuit the cell for some time (24 hr. will not be too long)
     before it will be in good condition.  

     (From the previously-mentioned listing, we find the Daniell
     cell's characteristics to be:

          Name:        Daniell, gravity, or Crowfoot cell
          Anode:       Zinc, held in top part of jar
          Electrolyte: Zinc sulphate; specific gravity
                       not to exceed 1.15; being lighter,
                       floats on top of copper sulphate
                       solution
          Cathode:     Copper; sheet star-shaped, placed 
                       bottom of jar surrounded by de-polarizer
          Depolarizer: Saturated copper-sulphate solution and
                       crystals.  3 pounds of copper-sulphate
                       crystals for one cell.

          EMF Volts:   1.07 

          Remarks:     Solutions kept apart by their different
                       specific gravities.  For closed-circuit
                       work only.  Most economic output is 1/4
                       ampere.  Average resistance, about 3 ohms.

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